Papineau, Louis Joseph


Papineau, Louis Joseph
(1786-1870)
   P Tribune of the people, 1; a melodious speaker, 1-3; compared with Cartier, 2; his parentage, 3-4; services in War of 1812, 5, 33; his house at Montebello, 6; college days, 32; enters Assembly, 1812, and immediately springs to front, 32; succeeds Panet as Speaker, 1815, 33; studies history and constitutional law, 33; his speeches, 34; leadership acknowledged, 34; his opinion of the constitution of 1791, 34-38; insists on budget being voted item by item, 42; sent to England to oppose proposed union of Upper and Lower Canada, 1822, 44-53; attacks Dalhousie in the Assembly, 56; Bibaud on, 56; fight for control of the budget, and removal of political abuses, 56-64; criticized for accepting mission to England, 65-66; revolt against his leadership, 66; friendship for Neilson, 67; difficulties with his followers, 68-69; refuses offer of seat in the Council, 1822, 72; his unsuccessful fight for responsible government, 75; defeats motion for adoption of Goderich's offer, 77; his action defended in Durham's Report, 77; advocates reform of Legislative Council, 79; his Montreal speech, 1834, 79-82; question of patronage, 84; his immoderate attitude, 86; deserted by Neilson and other moderate men, 86; blames government for ravages of cholera, 88-89; Ninety-Two Resolutions, 85-97; becomes an annexationist, 97, 113; stormy scenes in the Legislature, 1835, 99; his outbursts of passion, 100; replies to Gugy's speech in Assembly, 103-106; has Lord Aylmer's remarks about Ninety-Two Resolutions erased from journals of Assembly, 106, 109; bitter attack on Aylmer, 107-108; and Craig, 109; becomes an irreconcilable, 110; conflict with Lord Gosford, 110; criticized by Dr. Henry, 112; accepts invitations to Government House, 112-113; refuses to vote supplies, 115; the eve of the Rebellion, 116; moderate French, with the clergy, break away from his leadership, 116-117; fails to secure support of malcontents in other provinces, 118-119; his seditious speeches, 119-125; influenced by example of American Revolution, 121-122; at the St. Charles meeting, 1837, 125-126; leaves Montreal for St. Hyacinthe, 127; charged with high treason, 128; leaves St. Denis on the eve of the fight, 132; a price put on his head, 137; escapes to the United States, 137-138; extent of his responsibility for Rebellion, 143; denies having advocated violence, 143; his speeches evidence against him, 144; his letters, 144; and the government, 156; the people follow him blindly, indifferent to political rights, 160-161; spends the period of his exile in France, 163; letter to his brother, 164; returns to Canada in 1845, 165; historical studies in Paris, examines Canadian Archives there, 164-165; his pamphlet on the Rebellion, 165; again enters Parliament, 1847-1854, 166; relations with La Fontaine, 167-180; advocates independence, 167; attacks La Fontaine, 170-172; La Fontaine's reply, 172-176; his hatred of all forms of compromise, 177; forms new party, Le parti démocratique, 1849, 178, 187; its leaders, 178; its programme, 178; retires from public life, 180; his letters to Christie, 144, 180, 191, 194; criticism of the Act of 1840, 181-182; his correspondence with his friends, 183; lectures before Canadian Institute, Montreal, 1867, 183, 199; his portrait, 185; his character, 185; his father's influence, 186; merits and defects of his public life, 186-188; his correspondence with W. L. Mackenzie, 189; his home on the Ottawa, 190; his social qualities, 190-191; home life, 192; friendly attitude towards the English, 196; his letters, 197; his death, Sept. 23, 1870, 198; attitude towards the church, 198; opposed to Confederation, 199; his love for his country, 200. BL Born in Montreal, 19; political life, 19, 20; his connection with the Rebellion in Lower Canada, 45, 46, 49; anxious to conciliate clergy, 47; Cuvillier votes against his Ninety-Two Resolutions, 86; his correspondence with Hume and Roebuck, 229; his life in exile, 288; La Fontaine secures his pardon, 288; his return and election for St. Maurice, 288; his lost leadership, 289; attacks La Fontaine and his policy, 289-290; La Fontaine's reply, 290-292; for Radical party, 292; opposes Redistribution Bill, 303; in the Assembly, 312; leads Radical party, 342; opposes La Fontaine, 342, 343; Elgin calls him "Guy Fawkes," 342; attitude on Seigniorial Tenure, 350. E Causes of Rebellion, 17, 75, 76; his dangerous eloquence, 17-18; an agitator rather than a statesman, 20; fights for an elective Council, 21; mistaken attitude, 22; returns from exile, 50, 91; elected to Parliament, 50; his career in Parliament, 50-51; Elgin's antipathy for, 56, 57, 72, 73; contrasted with Mackenzie, 91, 92; controls Legislature of Lower Canada, 97; opposes development of St. Lawrence, 97, 98; forms Parti Rouge, 108, 109; factious opposition to law increasing representation, 117; held responsible by Cartier for amendment to Union Act, 122; his defeat and retirement from public life, 134; aftermath of Rebellion, 190. Bk Elected to the Lower Canada Legislature, 117. C His influence on Cartier, 1, 5; his St. Charles meeting, 3; standing as a statesman, 23; founds Democratic party, 26; advocates reforms, but crosses limits of constitutional agitation, 96. Md Heads Rebellion of 1837, in Lower Canada, 7; Cartier goes to United States with, after defeat of rebels, 266; in struggle against political domination of priesthood, 45. Mc Visited by Mackenzie, 288; addresses meetings, 328; amnestied, 474. See also Rebellion of 1837.
   Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Christie, History of Lower Canada.

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